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Blackmail by Richie Graham

Richie Graham’s Blackmail Blackmail: A Protection Racket on the Borders in 16th century The Grahams on both sides of the Esk elevated the extraction of blackmail or protection money to a full-time profession. Charges laid…

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The West March of England

Map of the West March of England, Boundaries and Generalities. The English West March was the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland though the latter was too far from the frontier to be important in border…

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Scots Dike, The Debateable Land

Scots' Dike earthwork marking Scotland / England frontier of 16th century Debateable Land The double ditch and embankment of the Scots' Dike are still identifiable in parts, though now little more than a low mound…

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Yanwath Hall, Eamont Bridge, Cumbria

Yanwath Hall From The South, Eamont Bridge, Cumbria Yanwath Hall is quite exceptional as it retains all the features of a medieval Border stronghold and is the finest survival of a pele tower with its…

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Newton Arlosh Fortified Church Tower

Newton Arlosh Church, a fortified church on the Solway The 14th century church at Newton Arlosh stands close by the fords across the Solway that in earlier times were used by raiders from across the…

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Milburn, a fortified village in Cumbria

Milburn; a fortified village in the Eden Valley in Cumbria The attractive old-world village of Milburn nestles in the shadow of Great Dun Fell. It is one of a string of fell-foot settlements strung along…

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Naworth Castle, Brampton, Cumbria

Naworth Castle, Brampton, Cumbria Naworth Castle stands to the east of Brampton in Cumbria. The first stone fortress on the site was built in the 14th century. In the 16th century Thomas, Lord Dacre, of…

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Lanercost Priory Fortified Buildings

Lanercost Priory, Fortified Buildings, Cumbria Lanercost, because of its position so close to the Border, suffered a series of devastating Scottish raids over the years. When David II plundered Lanercost in the 14th century, the…

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Great Salkeld Fortified Church Tower

Fortified tower of Great Salkeld Church, Great Salkeld, Cumbria The village of Great Salkeld in the Eden valley, a few miles north-east of Penrith lies on a route frequented by raiders in the past. In…

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Dacre Castle, Cumbria

Dacre Castle, Dacre, Cumbria Dacre Castle is a three-storey towerhouse of the 14th century, situated on a spur of high ground south of the church in the village of Dacre. The tower stands in the…

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